Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

KAPS (kinematic assessment of passive stretch): a tool to assess elbow flexor and extensor spasticity after stroke using a robotic exoskeleton

Wow, trying to objectively measure spasticity.
  • Andrew Centen,
  • Catherine R. Lowrey,
  • Stephen H. Scott,
  • Ting-Ting Yeh and
  • George MochizukiEmail author
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation201714:59
DOI: 10.1186/s12984-017-0272-8
Received: 11 January 2017
Accepted: 7 June 2017
Published: 19 June 2017



Spasticity is a common sequela of stroke. Traditional assessment methods include relatively coarse scales that may not capture all characteristics of elevated muscle tone. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a tool to quantitatively assess post-stroke spasticity in the upper extremity.


Ninety-six healthy individuals and 46 individuals with stroke participated in this study. The kinematic assessment of passive stretch (KAPS) protocol consisted of passive elbow stretch in flexion and extension across an 80° range in 5 movement durations. Seven parameters were identified and assessed to characterize spasticity (peak velocity, final angle, creep (or release), between-arm peak velocity difference, between-arm final angle, between-arm creep, and between-arm catch angle).


The fastest movement duration (600 ms) was most effective at identifying impairment in each parameter associated with spasticity. A decrease in peak velocity during passive stretch between the affected and unaffected limb was most effective at identifying individuals as impaired. Spasticity was also associated with a decreased passive range (final angle) and a classic ‘catch and release’ as seen through between-arm catch and creep metrics.


The KAPS protocol and robotic technology can provide a sensitive and quantitative assessment of post-stroke elbow spasticity not currently attainable through traditional measures.

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