- For this study, they developed a US IMPACT Food Policy Model.
- By using US IMPACT Food Policy Model they compare 3 policies targeting F&V intake across US adults from 2015 to 2030.
- National MMCs and national F&V price reductions of 10% and 30%.
- They accounted for differences in baseline diets, CVD rates, MMC coverage, MMC duration, and declining impacts over time.
- Outcomes included cumulative CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) deaths prevented or postponed and life–years gained (LYGs) over the study period, stratified by age, sex, and race.
- In this study, a 1–y MMC in 2015 would increase the average national F&V intake by 7% for 1 y and prevent ∼18,600 CVD deaths (95% CI: 17,600, 19,500), gaining ∼280,100 LYGs by 2030.
- With a 15–y MMC, increased F&V intake would be sustained, yielding a 3–fold larger reduction (56,100; 95% CI: 52,400, 57,700) in CVD deaths.
- In comparison, a 10% decrease in F&V prices would increase F&V intake by ∼14%.
- This would prevent ∼153,300 deaths (95% CI: 146,400, 159,200), gaining ∼2.51 million LYGs.
- For a 30% price decrease, resulting in a 42% increase in F&V intake, corresponding values would be 451,900 CVD deaths prevented or postponed (95% CI: 433,100, 467,500) and 7.3 million LYGs gained.
- Impacts were similar by sex, with a smaller proportional impact and larger absolute impacts at older ages.
- A 1–y MMC would be 35% less effective in preventing CVD deaths in non–Hispanic blacks than in whites.
- In comparison, price–reduction policies would have equitable proportional impacts.