Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Inter-rater reliability of kinesthetic measurements with the KINARM robotic exoskeleton

Who gives a shit about inter-rater reliability you blithering idiots? We want to know the efficacy and results of recovering using this. My god, the stupidity out there is appalling. How well would environmental enrichment and following Margaret Yekutiel in the book, 'Sensory Re-Education of the Hand After Stroke' in 2001 lead to better recovery?

Inter-rater reliability of kinesthetic measurements with the KINARM robotic exoskeleton

  • Jennifer A. SemrauEmail author,
  • Troy M. Herter,
  • Stephen H. Scott and
  • Sean P. Dukelow
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation201714:42
DOI: 10.1186/s12984-017-0260-z
Received: 3 August 2016
Accepted: 16 May 2017
Published: 22 May 2017



Kinesthesia (sense of limb movement) has been extremely difficult to measure objectively, especially in individuals who have survived a stroke. The development of valid and reliable measurements for proprioception is important to developing a better understanding of proprioceptive impairments after stroke and their impact on the ability to perform daily activities. We recently developed a robotic task to evaluate kinesthetic deficits after stroke and found that the majority (~60%) of stroke survivors exhibit significant deficits in kinesthesia within the first 10 days post-stroke. Here we aim to determine the inter-rater reliability of this robotic kinesthetic matching task.


Twenty-five neurologically intact control subjects and 15 individuals with first-time stroke were evaluated on a robotic kinesthetic matching task (KIN). Subjects sat in a robotic exoskeleton with their arms supported against gravity. In the KIN task, the robot moved the subjects’ stroke-affected arm at a preset speed, direction and distance. As soon as subjects felt the robot begin to move their affected arm, they matched the robot movement with the unaffected arm. Subjects were tested in two sessions on the KIN task: initial session and then a second session (within an average of 18.2 ± 13.8 h of the initial session for stroke subjects), which were supervised by different technicians. The task was performed both with and without the use of vision in both sessions. We evaluated intra-class correlations of spatial and temporal parameters derived from the KIN task to determine the reliability of the robotic task.


We evaluated 8 spatial and temporal parameters that quantify kinesthetic behavior. We found that the parameters exhibited moderate to high intra-class correlations between the initial and retest conditions (Range, r-value = [0.53–0.97]).


The robotic KIN task exhibited good inter-rater reliability. This validates the KIN task as a reliable, objective method for quantifying kinesthesia after stroke.

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