Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Monday, May 22, 2017

Role of Akt-independent mTORC1 and GSK3β signaling in sublethal NMDA-induced injury and the recovery of neuronal electrophysiology and survival

Followup needed since nothing here can be directly used to help your recovery.


Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, mediated by overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, is a mechanism that causes secondary damage to neurons. The early phase of injury causes loss of dendritic spines and changes to synaptic activity. The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway has been implicated in the modulation and regulation of synaptic strength, activity, maturation, and axonal regeneration. The present study focuses on the physiology and survival of neurons following manipulation of Akt and several downstream targets, such as GSK3β, FOXO1, and mTORC1, prior to NMDA-induced injury. Our analysis reveals that exposure to sublethal levels of NMDA does not alter phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and GSK3β at two and twenty four hours following injury. Electrophysiological recordings show that NMDA-induced injury causes a significant decrease in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents at both two and twenty four hours, and this phenotype can be prevented by inhibiting mTORC1 or mTORC1, but not Akt. Additionally, inhibition of mTORC1 or GSK3β promotes neuronal survival following NMDA-induced injury. Thus, NMDA-induced excitotoxicity involves a mechanism that requires the permissive activity of mTORC1 and GSK3β, demonstrating the importance of these kinases in the neuronal response to injury.

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