Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It lays out what needs to be done to get stroke survivors closer to 100% recovery. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:http://oc1dean.blogspot.com/2010/11/my-background-story_8.html

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Assessing the Relationship Between Motor Anticipation and Cortical Excitability in Subacute Stroke Patients With Movement-Related Potentials

What the fuck is the possible use of this research in getting survivors 100% recovered? Describes a problem, but too fucking lazy to even suggest a solution. 

Assessing the Relationship Between Motor Anticipation and Cortical Excitability in Subacute Stroke Patients With Movement-Related Potentials

Ling Chen1,2, Yurong Mao1, Minghui Ding1, Le Li1, Yan Leng1, Jiangli Zhao1, Zhiqin Xu1, Dong Feng Huang1,3* and Wai Leung Ambrose Lo1*
  • 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Guangdong Engineering and Technology Research Center for Rehabilitation Medicine and Translation, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
  • 2Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, The Secondary Medical College, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China
  • 3Xinhua College of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Background: Stroke survivors may lack the cognitive ability to anticipate the required control for palmar grasp execution. The cortical mechanisms involved in motor anticipation of palmar grasp movement and its association with post-stroke hand function remains unknown.
Aims: To investigate (Not come up with a solution to the problem)the cognitive anticipation process during a palmar grasp task in subacute stroke survivors and to compare with healthy individuals. The association between cortical excitability and hand function was also explored.
Methods: Twenty-five participants with hemiparesis within 1–6 months after first unilateral stroke were recruited. Twenty-five matched healthy individuals were recruited as control. Contingent negative variation (CNV) was measured using electroencephalography recordings (EEG). Event related potentials were elicited by cue triggered hand movement paradigm. CNV onset time and amplitude between pre-cue and before movement execution were recorded.
Results: The differences in CNV onset time and peak amplitude were statistically significant between the subacute stroke and control groups, with patients showing earlier onset time with increased amplitudes. However, there was no statistically significant difference in CNV onset time and peak amplitude between lesioned and non-lesioned hemisphere in the subacute stroke group. Low to moderate linear associations were observed between cortical excitability and hand function.
Conclusions: The earlier CNV onset time and higher peak amplitude observed in the subacute stroke group suggest increased brain computational demand during palmar grasp task. The lack of difference in CNV amplitude between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemisphere within the subacute stroke group may suggest that the non-lesioned hemisphere plays a role in the motor anticipatory process. The moderate correlations suggested that hand function may be associated with cortical processing of motor anticipation.

Introduction

Cognitive Process of Movement Anticipation in Stroke Patients

Stroke is among the leading causes of long-term disability worldwide (1). It is one of the most severe issues encountered by the aging population (2). Seventy-five percent of stroke survivors have motor dysfunction that affects body coordination and motor skill (3). Motion prediction is a key component of cognitive function and is a high-level function that affects motor control (4). Motor function recovery is often measured in terms of motor execution, with little consideration given to the high level cognitive processes that feeds into the actual motor response (5). To execute activities of daily living such as reach and grasp, the upper extremity must apply the correct force, move the precise range and accurately coordinate multiple limb segments (610). The cognitive ability to anticipate the required movement control is therefore fundamental to hand motor performance. Published literature indicates that stroke patients lack the anticipatory ability of upper limb movement that is associated with palmar grasp (1113). The lack of ability to anticipate was evidenced in the suboptimal application of force by producing markedly increased grip forces during lifting, holding and moving a hand-held object in patients with acute stroke (14). Patients with chronic stroke demonstrated a slower response to adapt to the perturbing force and exhibited smaller aftereffects when the perturbing force was unexpectedly removed than healthy controls (11).

Discussion

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the cognitive anticipation process between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemisphere in subacute stroke survivors and to compared those with healthy individuals.(Useless for recovery) The association between the electrophysiological process and the functional level as measured by the ARAT in the stroke group was also investigated.

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