J-shaped relationship between habitual coffee consumption and 10-year (2002-2012) cardiovascular disease incidence: The ATTICA study
- A sum of 3042 healthy adults (1514 men and 1528 women) living in the greater area of Athens were voluntarily selected to the ATTICA study amid 2001–2002.
- In 2011–2012, the 10–year follow–up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow–up).
- Coffee intake was evaluated by a validated food–frequency questionnaire at baseline (abstention, low, moderate, heavy).
- Incidence of fatal or non–fatal CVD event was recorded utilizing WHO–ICD–10 criteria and MetS was characterized by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III (revised) criteria.
- Overall, after controlling for potential CVD risk factors, the multivariate examination uncovered a J–shaped relationship between daily coffee drinking and the risk for a first CVD event in a 10–year period.
- Especially, the odds ratio for low (<150 ml/day), moderate (150–250 ml/day) and heavy coffee intake (>250 ml/day), compared to abstention, were 0.44 (95% CI 0.29–0.68), 0.49 (95% CI 0.27–0.92) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.56–1.93), respectively.
- This inverse association was also verified among participants without MetS at baseline, but not among participants with the MetS.