- The findings were pooled from the electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, CENTRAL) and reference lists of included articles from inception to March 2015.
- Randomised (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) of volitional and reactive stepping interventions were the constituents of this study.
- The study cohort comprised of older (minimum age 60) people.
- They reported on falls or fall risk factors.
- The findings demonstrated that the stepping interventions markedly lowered the rate of falls (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65, p<0.0001, I2=0%) and the proportion of fallers (risk ratio=0.51, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.68, p<0.0001, I2=0%).
- Subgroup analyses stratified by reactive and volitional stepping interventions exhibited efficiency that was similar for rate of falls and proportion of fallers.
- 2 RCTs (n=62) displayed reduced laboratory-induced falls.
- 5 RCTs and CCTs (n=36–416) demonstrated prominently improved simple and choice stepping reaction time, single leg stance, timed up and go performance (p<0.05), with the exception of measures of strength.