The latest here:
Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: Observational and Mendelian randomization analyses in 95000-223000 individuals
- First, they utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models assessed with limited cubic splines to analyze the observational relationship in 95366 White Danes.
- Second, they evaluated mean coffee consumption as per 5 genetic variations near the AHR (rs4410790; rs6968865) and CYP1A1/2 genes (rs2470893; rs2472297; rs2472299).
- Third, they utilized sex– and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to inspect genetic relationship with cardiovascular disease and all–cause mortality in 112509 Danes.
- At last, they utilized sex and age–adjusted logistic regression models to analyze genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including the Cardiogram and C4D consortia in a total of up to 223414 individuals.
- They applied comparable examinations to ApoE genotypes connected with plasma cholesterol levels, as a positive control.
- In observational investigations, they found U–shaped relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease and all–cause mortality; lowest risks were found in individuals with medium coffee consumption.
- Caffeine consumption allele score (rs4410790 + rs2470893) was connected with a 42% higher coffee consumption.
- Hazard ratios per caffeine consumption allele were 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.03) for ischaemic heart disease, 1.02 (0.99–1.02) for ischaemic stroke, 1.02 (1.00–1.03) for ischaemic vascular disease, 1.02 (0.99–1.06) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.01 (0.99–1.03) for all–cause mortality.
- Including international consortia, odds ratios per caffeine consumption allele for ischaemic heart disease were 1.00 (0.98–1.02) for rs4410790, 1.01 (0.99–1.03) for rs6968865, 1.02 (1.00–1.04) for rs2470893, 1.02 (1.00–1.04) for rs2472297 and 1.03 (0.99–1.06) for rs2472299.
- Conversely, 5% lower cholesterol level caused by ApoE genotype had a corresponding odds ratio for ischaemic heart disease of 0.93 (0.89–0.97).