Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Mechanisms of axon regeneration: The significance of proteoglycans

You need this so you will have to hope that your doctor is the one in a million that correctly creates a stroke protocol out of this.  But nevermind, you are screwed.


Neuronal intrinsic pathways for axonal regeneration/sprouting after injury.
Intracellular/extracellular promoters/inhibitors for axonal regeneration
Proteoglycan and its neuronal cell surface receptors as major inhibitors



Therapeutics specific to neural injury have long been anticipated but remain unavailable. Axons in the central nervous system do not readily regenerate after injury, leading to dysfunction of the nervous system. This failure of regeneration is due to both the low intrinsic capacity of axons for regeneration and the various inhibitors emerging upon injury. After many years of concerted efforts, however, these hurdles to axon regeneration have been partially overcome.

Scope of review

This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration. We highlight proteoglycans, particularly because it has become increasingly clear that these proteins serve as critical regulators for axon regeneration.

Major conclusions

Studies on proteoglycans have revealed that glycans not only assist in the modulation of protein functions but also act as main players—e.g., as functional ligands mediating intracellular signaling through specific receptors on the cell surface. By regulating clustering of the receptors, glycans in the proteoglycan moiety, i.e., glycosaminoglycans, promote or inhibit axon regeneration. In addition, proteoglycans are involved in various types of neural plasticity, ranging from synaptic plasticity to experience-dependent plasticity.

General significance

Although studies on proteins have progressively facilitated our understanding of the nervous system, glycans constitute a new frontier for further research and development in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuro-glycoscience, edited by Kenji Kadomatsu and Hiroshi Kitagawa.


  • Axon regeneration;
  • Proteoglycans;
  • Glycosaminoglycans;
  • Neural plasticity
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This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuro-glycoscience, edited by Kenji Kadomatsu and Hiroshi Kitagawa.

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