Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

My blog is not to help survivors recover, it is to have the 10 million yearly stroke survivors light fires underneath their doctors, stroke hospitals and stroke researchers to get stroke solved. 100% recovery. The stroke medical world is completely failing at that goal, they don't even have it as a goal.

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It lays out what needs to be done to get stroke survivors closer to 100% recovery. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Deletion of NADPH oxidase 4 reduces severity of traumatic brain injury

Simple question, would this be the same for stroke? But with NO stroke leadership or strategy we will never know.
  Open Access


NOX4 is upregulated following focal TBI in the injured perilesional cortex.
Deletion of NOX4 reduces oxidative stress, particularly in neurons, following TBI.
NOX4 deletion attenuates lesion size, cell death, and neurodegeneration after TBI.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to over 30% of injury-related deaths and is a major cause of disability without effective clinical therapies. Oxidative stress contributes to neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death to amplify the primary injury after TBI. NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a major source of reactive oxygen species following brain injury. Our current study addresses the functional role of the NOX4 isoform in the damaged cortex following TBI. Adult male C57BL/6 J and NOX4-/- mice received a controlled cortical impact and lesion size, NOX4 expression, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and cell death were assessed in the injured cerebral cortex. The results revealed that NOX4 mRNA and protein expression were significantly upregulated at 1–7 days post-TBI in the injured cerebral cortex. Expression of the oxidative stress markers, 8-OHdG, 4-HNE, and nitrotyrosine was upregulated at 2 and 4 days post-TBI in the WT injured cerebral cortex, and nitrotyrosine primarily colocalized with neurons. In the NOX4-/- mice, expression of these oxidative stress markers, 8-OHdG, 4-HNE, and nitrotyrosine were significantly attenuated at both timepoints. In addition, examination of NOX4-/- mice revealed a reduced number of apoptotic (TUNEL+) and degenerating (FJB+) cells in the perilesional cortex after TBI, as well as a smaller lesion size compared with the WT group. The results of this study implicate a functional role for NOX4 in TBI induced oxidative damage and neurodegeneration and raise the possibility that targeting NOX4 may have therapeutic efficacy in TBI.

Graphical abstract


  • CCI, Controlled cortical impact;
  • NOX, NADPH Oxidase;
  • ROS, reactive oxygen species;
  • TBI, traumatic brain injury;
  • WT, wild-type


  • NADPH oxidase;
  • NOX4;
  • Traumatic brain injury;
  • TBI;
  • Oxidative stress

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