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|Exp Neurobiol. 2018 Apr;27(2):129-138. English.|
Published online April 25, 2018. https://doi.org/10.5607/en.2018.27.2.129
|Copyright © Experimental Neurobiology 2018.|
|Black Rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) Extract Reduces Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Mice|
|Sun-Nyoung Hwang,1,† Jae-Cheon Kim,1,† Mohammad Iqbal Hossain Bhuiyan,1 Joo Youn Kim,1 Ji Seon Yang,2 Shin Hee Yoon,2 Kee Dong Yoon,3 and Seong Yun Kim1|
|1Department of Pharmacology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.|
|2Department of Physiology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.|
|3College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Korea.|
To whom correspondence should be addressed. TEL: 82-2-2258-7324, FAX: 82-2-536-2485,
†These authors contributed equally to this work.
|Received January 31, 2018; Revised April 23, 2018; Accepted April 23, 2018.|
|This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-|
Rice is the most commonly consumed grain in the world. Black rice has been suggested to contain various bioactive compounds including anthocyanin antioxidants. There is currently little information about the nutritional benefits of black rice on brain pathology. Here, we investigated the effects of black rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) extract (BRE) on the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by ischemic insult. BRE (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to adult male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 23 min on the 8th day of BRE or vehicle administration. Histological analyses conducted on the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration revealed that administering BRE profoundly attenuated neuronal cell death, inhibited reactive astrogliosis, and prevented loss of glutathione peroxidase expression in the hippocampus when compared to vehicle treatment. In addition, BRE considerably ameliorated BCCAO-induced memory impairment on the Morris water maze test from the 15th day to the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration. These results indicate that chronic administration of BRE is potentially beneficial in cerebral ischemia.
|Keywords: Oryza sativa; brain ischemia; neuroprotection; hippocampus; memory and learning tests|
Rice is widely consumed by about half of the world's population . Interest in rice increased after epidemiological studies showed a correlation between a low incidence of cancers and coronary heart disease and rice consumption [14, 15]. In particular, black rice (Oryza sativa L.) has antioxidant effects against oxidative-stress-related diseases such as atherosclerosis , inflammation  and Alzheimer's disease  due to its anthocyanin antioxidants [19, 20, 21]. However, information is lacking on the effects of black rice against brain I/R injury, in which oxidative stress plays a major role.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black rice extract (BRE) on neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus using the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO) model of transient global cerebral ischemia. Additionally, we performed the Morris water maze test to examine whether BRE could alleviate BCCAO-induced spatial learning and memory impairment.
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