Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:http://oc1dean.blogspot.com/2010/11/my-background-story_8.html

Wednesday, May 2, 2018

Black Rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) Extract Reduces Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

No followup in humans will be done.
Our fucking failures of stroke associations will DO NOTHING. Your doctor will DO NOTHING. Your stroke hospital will DO NOTHING.  You're screwed. 
https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.5607/en.2018.27.2.129
Exp Neurobiol. 2018 Apr;27(2):129-138. English.
Published online April 25, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.5607/en.2018.27.2.129
Copyright © Experimental Neurobiology 2018.


Black Rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) Extract Reduces Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
Sun-Nyoung Hwang,1, Jae-Cheon Kim,1, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain Bhuiyan,1 Joo Youn Kim,1 Ji Seon Yang,2 Shin Hee Yoon,2 Kee Dong Yoon,3 and Seong Yun Kim1
1Department of Pharmacology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.
2Department of Physiology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.
3College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. TEL: 82-2-2258-7324, FAX: 82-2-536-2485, Email: syk@catholic.ac.kr
These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received January 31, 2018; Revised April 23, 2018; Accepted April 23, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rice is the most commonly consumed grain in the world. Black rice has been suggested to contain various bioactive compounds including anthocyanin antioxidants. There is currently little information about the nutritional benefits of black rice on brain pathology. Here, we investigated the effects of black rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) extract (BRE) on the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by ischemic insult. BRE (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to adult male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 23 min on the 8th day of BRE or vehicle administration. Histological analyses conducted on the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration revealed that administering BRE profoundly attenuated neuronal cell death, inhibited reactive astrogliosis, and prevented loss of glutathione peroxidase expression in the hippocampus when compared to vehicle treatment. In addition, BRE considerably ameliorated BCCAO-induced memory impairment on the Morris water maze test from the 15th day to the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration. These results indicate that chronic administration of BRE is potentially beneficial in cerebral ischemia.




Keywords: Oryza sativa; brain ischemia; neuroprotection; hippocampus; memory and learning tests
INTRODUCTION
Although brain ischemia is frequently induced by sudden cardiac arrest, which is the main cause of death and disability in developed countries [1, 2], no neuroprotective agents are currently clinically available [3]. The hippocampus, one of the brain areas responsible for cognitive function [4], is severely damaged following cerebral ischemia [5]. Various mechanisms, including excitotoxicity [6], oxidative stress [7, 8], and inflammation [9] have been rigorously studied to explain the neuronal cell death induced by brain ischemia. Among these mechanisms, oxidative stress has been considered a main pathogenic mechanism of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury [7]. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals and/or decreases in the scavenging activity of antioxidants take place during I/R injury [7]. Consequent oxidative stress leads to cellular dysfunction through oxidation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, eventually resulting in cell death [7]. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase play important roles in scavenging ROS and maintaining redox homeostasis [7]. In addition, there have been many reports on the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants against cerebral I/R injury [7, 10, 11]. Because the level of endogenous antioxidants is insufficient to relieve oxidative stress during I/R injury, interest in dietary natural antioxidants as alternative preventive and/or therapeutic agents has grown [12].
Rice is widely consumed by about half of the world's population [13]. Interest in rice increased after epidemiological studies showed a correlation between a low incidence of cancers and coronary heart disease and rice consumption [14, 15]. In particular, black rice (Oryza sativa L.) has antioxidant effects against oxidative-stress-related diseases such as atherosclerosis [16], inflammation [17] and Alzheimer's disease [18] due to its anthocyanin antioxidants [19, 20, 21]. However, information is lacking on the effects of black rice against brain I/R injury, in which oxidative stress plays a major role.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black rice extract (BRE) on neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus using the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO) model of transient global cerebral ischemia. Additionally, we performed the Morris water maze test to examine whether BRE could alleviate BCCAO-induced spatial learning and memory impairment.

More at link. 

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