- In this study researchers conducted a prospective cohort study.
- A sum of 31,917 men 45–79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population–based Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) study.
- Chocolate intake was evaluated through a self–administrated food frequency questionnaire.
- Participants were taken after for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011 utilizing record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause–of–death registries.
- Amid 14 years of follow up, 2157 men were hospitalized (n = 1901) or died from incident HF (n = 256).
- Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate consumption, the multivariable–adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95%CI 0.78–0.99) for those consuming 1–3 servings each month, 0.83 (95%CI 0.72–0.94) for those consuming 1–2 servings every week, 0.82 (95%CI 0.68–0.99) for those consuming 3–6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95%CI 0.84–1.45) for those consuming ≥ 1 servings every day (P for quadratic trend = 0.001).