Non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a potential tool to support neuronal plasticity after stroke in the sub-acute and even in the chronic state. A few randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the positive effect on motor rehabilitation. Recent data also indicate that BCI training may improve cognitive rehabilitation. However, important questions remain to be addressed for implementing BCI-based rehabilitation in the clinical routine. This translational effort requires an interdisciplinary approach. The current article provides an overview of a stroke rehabilitation workshop of the 6th International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting in Asilomar, Pacific Grove, USA, held from 30 May to 3 June 2016. This workshop provided an overview of the current state of the art in BCI-based motor and cognitive rehabilitation, presented BCI set-ups shown to be effective, and concluded with a discussion of translational issues and barriers.