Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Sunday, January 1, 2017

The Rhythm That Makes Memories Permanent

You will need to ask your doctor how to use this news to improve your memory post-stroke. Don't just take tests proving your memory is bad, that is fucking stupid. DEMAND your doctor give you EXACT protocols to improve memory. Anything less is pure incompetency.

Summary: Sharp wave ripples, brain waves important for memory consolidation, are influenced by synaptic inhibition, researchers report.
Source: Institute of Science and Technology Austria.
Scientists at IST Austria identify mechanism that regulates rhythmic brain waves — inhibition at synapses is the key to make memories permanent.
Every time we learn something new, the memory does not only need to be acquired, it also needs to be stabilized in a process called memory consolidation. Brain waves are considered to play an important role in this process, but the underlying mechanism that dictates their shape and rhythm was still unknown. A study now published in Neuron shows that one of the brain waves important for consolidating memory is dominated by synaptic inhibition.
So-called sharp wave ripples (SWRs) are one of three major brain waves coming from the hippocampus. The new study, a cooperation between the research groups of Professors Peter Jonas and Jozsef Csicsvari at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), found the mechanism that generates this oscillation of neuronal activity in mice. “Our results shed light on the mechanisms underlying this high-frequency network oscillation. As our experiments provide information both about the phase and the location of the underlying conductance, we were able to show that precisely timed synaptic inhibition is the current generator for sharp wave ripples.” explains author Professor Peter Jonas.
When neurons oscillate in synchrony, their electrical activity adds together so that measurements of field potential can pick them up. SWRs are one of the most synchronous oscillations in the brain. Their name derives from their characteristic trace when measuring local field potential: the slow sharp waves have a triangular shape with ripples, or fast field oscillations, added on. SWRs have been suggested to play a key role in making memories permanent. In this study, the researchers wanted to identify whether ripples are caused by a temporal modulation of excitation or of inhibition at the synapse, the connection between neurons. For Professor Jozsef Csicsvari, a pooling of expertise was crucial in answering this question: “SWRs play an important role in the brain, but the mechanism generating them has not been identified so far – probably partly because of technical limitations in the experiments. We combined the Jonas group’s experience in recording under voltage-clamp conditions with my group’s expertise in analyzing electrical signals while animals are behaving. This collaborative effort made unprecedented measurements possible and we could achieve the first high resolution recordings of synaptic currents during SWR in behaving mice.”
The neuroscientists found that the frequency of both excitatory and inhibitory events at the synapse increased during SWRs. But quantitatively, synaptic inhibition dominated over excitation during the generation of SWRs. Furthermore, the magnitude of inhibitory events positively correlated with SWR amplitude, indicating that the inhibitory events are the driver of the oscillation. Inhibitory events were phase locked to individual cycles of ripple oscillations. Finally, the researchers showed that so-called PV+ interneurons – neurons that provide inhibitory output onto other neurons – are mainly responsible for generating SWRs.
a graph.
During sharp wave ripples (shown on the top) the inhibitory conductance (blue curve) has a much higher amplitude than the excitatory conductance (red curve). This shows that inhibition is the underlying mechanism that creates the brain wave. image is credited to IST Austria.
The authors propose a model involving two specific regions in the hippocampus, CA1 and CA3. In their model SWRs are generated by a combination of tonic excitation from the CA3 region and phasic inhibition within the CA1 region. Jian Gan, first author and postdoc in the group of Peter Jonas, explains the implications for temporal coding of information in the CA1 region: “In our ripple model, inhibition ensures the precise timing of neuronal firing. This could be critically important for preplay or replay of neuronal activity sequences, and the consolidation of memory. Inhibition may be the crucial player to make memories permanent.”
About this neuroscience research article
Funding: The study was funded by Fond zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, European Research Council.
Source: Peter Jonas – Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Image Source: image is credited to IST Austria.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Phase-Locked Inhibition, but Not Excitation, Underlies Hippocampal Ripple Oscillations in Awake Mice In Vivo” by Jian Gan, Shih-ming Weng, Alejandro J. Pernía-Andrade, Jozsef Csicsvari, and Peter Jonas in Neuron. Published online December 29 2016 doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.12.018

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