Deans' stroke musings

Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain!Just think of all the trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 493 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.
My back ground story is here:

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Picroside II protects the blood-brain barrier by inhibiting the oxidative signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

Is this enough to write up a stroke protocol? Or will this never get done because SOMEONE ELSE WILL SOLVE THE PROBLEM?
  • Li Zhai, 
  • Min Liu, 
  • Tingting Wang, 
  • Hongyan Zhang, 
  • Shan Li, 
  • Yunliang Guo


Background and purpose

Thrombolysis is used to improve cerebral circulation; at the same time, neuroprotective drugs such as antioxidants should also be used. The aim of these experiments was to explore the protective mechanism of an antioxidant, picroside II, on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CI/R) injury.


To observe the antagonistic effect of picroside II on CI/R damage, the neurological deficit score and the infarct volume were measured. To detect the protective effect of picroside II on nerve cells and the BBB, the morphology and structure of cortical brain tissue were observed, respectively. To investigate the antioxidant effect and mechanism of picroside II, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, the activity of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and the protein levels of Nox2 and Rac-1 were detected. To investigate the protective mechanism of picroside II on the BBB, the levels of ROCK, MLCK, MMP-2 and claudin-5 were tested.


A higher neurological score, bigger cortex infarction, more damaged neuron structure and injured BBB, increased content of ROS and activity of NADPH oxidase, higher protein levels of Nox2, Rac-1, ROCK, MLCK and MMP-2 and lower levels of claudin-5 were observed in the model group. In the picroside group, the neurological score, neuronal damage, BBB injury, ROS content and NADPH oxidase activity were reduced (P<0.05), and the protein levels of Rac-1, Nox2, ROCK, MLCK and MMP-2 were down-regulated (P<0.05), while the expression of claudin-5 was up-regulated (P<0.05).


Picroside II could protect the nervous system possibly through reducing the content of ROS by down-regulating the expression of Rac-1 and Nox2 and could protect the BBB through reducing the expression of ROCK, MLCK, and MMP-2, while enhancing the expression of claudin-5.

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