Changing stroke rehab and research worldwide now.Time is Brain! trillions and trillions of neurons that DIE each day because there are NO effective hyperacute therapies besides tPA(only 12% effective). I have 523 posts on hyperacute therapy, enough for researchers to spend decades proving them out. These are my personal ideas and blog on stroke rehabilitation and stroke research. Do not attempt any of these without checking with your medical provider. Unless you join me in agitating, when you need these therapies they won't be there.

What this blog is for:

My blog is not to help survivors recover, it is to have the 10 million yearly stroke survivors light fires underneath their doctors, stroke hospitals and stroke researchers to get stroke solved. 100% recovery. The stroke medical world is completely failing at that goal, they don't even have it as a goal. Shortly after getting out of the hospital and getting NO information on the process or protocols of stroke rehabilitation and recovery I started searching on the internet and found that no other survivor received useful information. This is an attempt to cover all stroke rehabilitation information that should be readily available to survivors so they can talk with informed knowledge to their medical staff. It lays out what needs to be done to get stroke survivors closer to 100% recovery. It's quite disgusting that this information is not available from every stroke association and doctors group.

Monday, February 26, 2024

With the Exopulse Mollii Suit, there’s finally a way to regularly, consistently manage spasticity between the ups and downs of other treatments

Damn: Not available in the US;  

Notification: The information contained on this site is only intended for an audience outside the United States. Please note that the products described herein are not FDA approved.

The Suit is currently available at select clinics and rehabilitation facilities in Europe.

 With the Exopulse Mollii Suit, there’s finally a way to regularly, consistently manage spasticity between the ups and downs of other treatments

Millions of women are 'under-muscled.' These foods help build strength

 I bet your doctor has never talked to the hospital nutritionist to get a proper stroke diet protocol created for survivors. You'll have to call the hospital president with your findings of how incompetent your stroke department is.

Have at it, if your doctor tells you nothing; Protein Calculator

Millions of women are 'under-muscled.' These foods help build strength

If you've seen a loved one take a bad fall – like my mother did a few months ago – you know the importance of muscle strength.

Muscle mass peaks in our 30s and then starts a long, slow decline. Muscle-loss, also called sarcopenia, affects more than 45% of older Americans, especially women.

"As a country, we are under-muscled," says Richard Joseph, a wellness-focused physician. It's a key culprit of physical decline.

Loss of strength increases the risk of falling, the top cause of death from injury in older adults. The Office on Women's Health recently launched a sarcopenia awareness campaign to elevate the issue.

The good news: No matter your age, you can take steps to maximize your strength. Resistance training is key, but equally important, is eating adequate amounts of protein.

If you don't consume enough protein, "you're missing half of the equation," says nutrition and exercise scientist Rachele Pojednic, a researcher at Stanford Lifestyle Medicine. But millions of older women in the U.S. don't consume enough protein, research shows.

Protein is critically important because it's in all our cells — including muscle cells — and our bodies constantly recycle it. There's a steady demand for new supplies, and protein-rich foods provide the amino acids that become the building blocks of the new proteins our bodies need.

As we age, the goal is to consume protein from food at a faster rate than our body is breaking it down. When you add in resistance training, this will help maintain muscle mass, Pojednic says.

So how much is enough? The recommended intake is a minimum of 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. That's about 0.36 grams of protein multiplied by your weight in pounds. That means a person who weighs 150 pounds should consume at least 54 grams of protein a day.

But many experts say more is optimal. As we age, protein needs to increase. And if you are exercising a lot – which is the way to build new muscle — you may benefit from even more.

Sports medicine experts recommend up to 1.7 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight each day for people who are actively training, which is about 115 grams for a 150 pound person.

Most young adults tend to consume the recommended amounts of protein. But, later in life, a study from 2019 found about 30% of men in their 50s and 60s fall short, and nearly half of women aged 50 and older do.

So, as part of my project on healthy aging, I decided to up my protein intake. I was advised to aim for 90 grams of protein a day, which, at first I found challenging. So, I asked experts to share some key foods and strategies to help pack more protein into my meals. Here are some ideas:

Here's an example of a high-protein breakfast. Estimates are from food labels and this protein guide from Kaiser Permanente.

Allison Aubrey/Katie Hayes Luke/NPR

1. Amp up your morning bowl of Greek yogurt

At about 17 grams per ¾ cup serving, Greek yogurt is a great source of protein. You can eat it plain, add sweet or savory toppings, or throw it into a smoothie. "It's super versatile and high in casein protein, which is slow to digest, which keeps you full while also promoting muscle protein synthesis," which is the process of building muscle mass, Pojednic says.

2. Eggs are an easy way to get protein on the go

At 6 grams of protein for a large egg, hard boiled eggs are a go-to option. If you hard boil a dozen eggs and keep them in the refrigerator, they're ready to grab and go. And, whether you like scrambled or poached, eating an egg in the morning - or as a mid-morning snack, can hold you to lunch. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines say an egg a day won't raise heart disease risk in healthy people, but some adults may need to limit eggs due to cholesterol concerns.

3. Power up your smoothies with powdered protein

If you've got a blender and some fruits and veg on hand, you're ready to go. "We have a big smoothie game in our house," Joseph says. "I love smoothies, my kids love smoothies," he says and it's easy to add extra protein by blending in a scoop of protein powder. Whey protein powder, which is derived from the cheesemaking process when whey and curds are separated, has all of the essential amino acids our bodies need, and it's another great option for high protein on the go. I like to buy big bags of frozen berries for my smoothies and toss in spirulina, an algae that's high in protein. Also, if my bananas or greens are getting too ripe, I add them, so they don't go to waste.

The parmesan cheese on this tuna and chickpea salad has a surprising amount of protein.

Allison Aubrey/Katie Hayes Luke/NPR

4. Add some tuna to your salad

Fish is chockablock full of protein. Cod has approximately 40 grams per serving and salmon and tuna both have approximately 30 grams. And Rachele Pojednic says fish is an excellent source of unsaturated, rather than saturated fat, so that's a plus for heart health. One super simple option is to toss a can of strained tuna over a bed of greens, then add fruit and nuts for crunch. And, voilà, you've hit your protein target!

5. Sprinkle in protein with nuts and seeds

Nuts and seeds tend to be about the same – or even better – in the protein category than legumes, so try sprinkling them on salads and rice bowls, Pojednic says. Hemp and pumpkin seeds both have around 8 grams for a ¼ cup serving, and you can add them as healthy "crunchies" on top of yogurt, oatmeal, salads or bowls, she says. Pumpkin seeds also contain plenty of magnesium, beneficial for heart health.

6. Meat in small doses adds a protein punch

Meat is a top source of protein, serving up about 7 grams of protein per ounce, and many dietitians say to aim for lean cuts, such as chicken breast or lean ground turkey. But as many people aim to cut back, there are plenty of plant-based alternatives. A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition this month finds adequate protein intake in midlife – especially plant protein – is linked to significantly higher odds of healthy aging.

This high-protein dinner features eggplant stuffed with black beans.

Allison Aubrey/Katie Hayes Luke/NPR

7. Tasty ways to eat tofu and beans

Lentils and chickpeas are two of my favorite plant protein sources, which are delicious on their own or in curries and soups. You can also cook up a potful and keep them in the fridge ready to add to salads. There's also tofu and edamame, which are affordable and available at most supermarkets. Lesser known options include Tempeh (soy based) which comes in at approximately 18-20 grams of protein per serving. Here's a hack to prevent tofu mush: I sprinkle a little cornstarch on diced tofu and pan fry it, which makes it crispy on the outside. Then I toss in sauces, such as peanut sauce or pesto.

8. Don't miss out higher-protein grains

I love the nutty taste and chewy texture of farro, an ancient grain that's won over a lot of fans. It's easy to cook – just toss the grain into boiling water and let it simmer. A few cups makes enough for several meals. At twice the protein, it's an "awesome swap for rice," Pojednic says. And farro also has a lot more fiber. Quinoa is another good option, it has approximately 8 grams of protein per cup.

9. Don't forget veggies

Vegetables are not the main players when it comes to protein, but they can add a few grams. For instance, a cup of broccoli contains about 2.6 grams. And greens and colorful vegetables contain many beneficial vitamins, micronutrients and antioxidant compounds which are good for health. Eating a salad a day is linked to a sharper memory, too. So keep a bowl of chopped vegetables to snack on and blend into salads, stews and soups.

We'd like to hear – or see – how you are packing protein into your diet. You can share your tips and photos here in the form below. Or drop us a line at

Sunday, February 25, 2024

A Prelude to Speech: How the Brain Forms Words

If you have aphasia, how EXACTLY will your doctor be using this to get you recovered? 

Do you prefer your  doctor and hospital incompetence NOT KNOWING? OR NOT DOING?

A Prelude to Speech: How the Brain Forms Words

Summary: Researchers made a groundbreaking discovery on how the human brain forms words before speaking. By utilizing Neuropixels probes, they’ve mapped out how neurons represent speech sounds and assemble them into language.

This study not only sheds light on the complex cognitive steps involved in speech production but also opens up possibilities for treating speech and language disorders. The technology could lead to artificial prosthetics for synthetic speech, benefiting those with neurological disorders.

Key Facts:

  1. The study uses advanced Neuropixels probes to record neuron activities in the brain, showing how we think of and produce words.
  2. Researchers found neurons dedicated to both speaking and listening, revealing separate brain functions for language production and comprehension.
  3. The findings could help develop treatments for speech and language disorders and lead to brain-machine interfaces for synthetic speech.

Source: Harvard

By using advanced brain recording techniques, a new study led by researchers from Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital demonstrates how neurons in the human brain work together to allow people to think about what words they want to say and then produce them aloud through speech.

The findings provide a detailed map of how speech sounds such as consonants and vowels are represented in the brain well before they are even spoken and how they are strung together during language production.

The work, which is published in Nature, could lead to improvements in the understanding and treatment of speech and language disorders.

“Although speaking usually seems easy, our brains perform many complex cognitive steps in the production of natural speech — including coming up with the words we want to say, planning the articulatory movements, and producing our intended vocalizations,” says senior author Ziv Williams, an associate professor in neurosurgery at MGH and Harvard Medical School.

“Our brains perform these feats surprisingly fast — about three words per second in natural speech — with remarkably few errors. Yet how we precisely achieve this feat has remained a mystery.”

When they used a cutting-edge technology called Neuropixels probes to record the activities of single neurons in the prefrontal cortex, a frontal region of the human brain, Williams and his colleagues identified cells that are involved in language production and that may underlie the ability to speak. They also found that there are separate groups of neurons in the brain dedicated to speaking and listening.

“The use of Neuropixels probes in humans was first pioneered at MGH,” said Williams. “These probes are remarkable — they are smaller than the width of a human hair, yet they also have hundreds of channels that are capable of simultaneously recording the activity of dozens or even hundreds of individual neurons.”

Williams worked to develop the recording techniques with Sydney Cash, a professor in neurology at MGH and Harvard Medical School, who also helped lead the study.

The research shows how neurons represent some of the most basic elements involved in constructing spoken words — from simple speech sounds called phonemes to their assembly into more complex strings such as syllables.

For example, the consonant “da,” which is produced by touching the tongue to the hard palate behind the teeth, is needed to produce the word dog. By recording individual neurons, the researchers found that certain neurons become active before this phoneme is spoken out loud. Other neurons reflected more complex aspects of word construction such as the specific assembly of phonemes into syllables.

With their technology, the investigators showed that it’s possible to reliably determine the speech sounds that individuals will utter before they articulate them. In other words, scientists can predict what combination of consonants and vowels will be produced before the words are actually spoken. This capability could be leveraged to build artificial prosthetics or brain-machine interfaces capable of producing synthetic speech, which could benefit a range of patients.

“Disruptions in the speech and language networks are observed in a wide variety of neurological disorders — including stroke, traumatic brain injury, tumors, neurodegenerative disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, and more,” said Arjun Khanna, a postdoctoral fellow in the Williams Lab and a co-author on the study.

“Our hope is that a better understanding of the basic neural circuitry that enables speech and language will pave the way for the development of treatments for these disorders.”

The researchers hope to expand on their work by studying more complex language processes that will allow them to investigate questions related to how people choose the words that they intend to say and how the brain assembles words into sentences that convey an individual’s thoughts and feelings to others.

About this language and speech research news

Author: MGH Communications
Source: Harvard
Contact: MGH Communications – Harvard
Image: The image is credited to Neuroscience News

Original Research: Open access.
Single-neuronal elements of speech production in humans” by Ziv Williams et al. Nature

Telemedical stroke care significantly improves patient outcome in rural areas – long-term analysis of the German NEVAS network.

 'Improves' IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH! You do realize survivors want 100% recovery? Or are you that incompetent you don't know what survivors want?

Telemedical stroke care significantly improves patient outcome in rural areas – long-term analysis of the German NEVAS network.



Comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) offer state-of-the-art stroke care in metropolitan centers. However, in rural areas sufficient stroke expertise is much scarcer. Recently, telemedical stroke networks have offered instant consultation by stroke experts, enabling immediate administration of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) on-site and decision on thrombectomy. While these immediate decisions are made during the consult, the impact of the network structures on stroke care in spoke hospitals is still not well described.


This study was performed to determine if on-site performance in rural hospitals and patient outcome improve over time through participation and regular medical staff training within a telemedical stroke network.


In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from stroke patients treated in four regional hospitals within the telemedical Neurovascular Network of Southwest Bavaria (NEVAS) between 2014-2019. We only included those patients that were treated in the regional hospitals until discharge at home or to neurorehabilitation. Functional outcome (modified Rankin scale) at discharge, mortality rate and periprocedural intracranial hemorrhage served as primary outcome parameters. Door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times were secondary outcome parameters.


In 2014-2019, 5,379 patients were treated for acute stroke with 477 receiving IVT. Most baseline characteristics were comparable over time. For all stroke patients, door-to-imaging times increased over the years, but significantly improved for potential IVT candidates and those finally treated with IVT. The percentage of patients with door-to-needle time <30 minutes increased from 10% to 25%. Clinical outcome at discharge improved for all stroke patients treated in the regional hospitals. Particularly for patients treated with IVT, good clinical outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-2) at discharge increased from 2014 to 2019 by 19% and mortality rates dropped from 13% to 5%.


24h/7d telemedical support and regular on-site medical staff training within a structured telemedicine stroke network such as NEVAS significantly improve on-site stroke care(You need to measure results!)in rural areas, leading to a considerable benefit in clinical outcome. Data access statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available upon reasonable request and in compliance with the local and international ethical guidelines.

Get full access to this article

The MAPSTROKE project: a Computational Strategy to Improve Access to Acute Stroke Care

You braindead fucking blithering idiots! Survivors don't want 'access'; they want recovery and results! Contact me at and I'll try to explain in small words how fucking wrong you are! Scared to talk to me?

Your tyranny of low expectations is showing and survivors want more than that!

The MAPSTROKE project: a Computational Strategy to Improve Access to Acute Stroke Care



Global access to acute stroke treatment is variable worldwide, with notable gaps in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially in rural areas. Ensuring a standardized method for pinpointing the existing regional coverage and proposing potential sites for new stroke centers is essential to change this scenario.(This is only the first step, What are your followon steps to get to 100% recovery? No plan is not OK!)


To create and apply computational strategies (CS) to determine optimal locations for new Acute Stroke Centers (ASCs), with a pilot application in nine Latin-American regions/countries.


Hospitals treating Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and meeting the minimum infrastructure requirements per structured protocols were categorized as ASCs. Hospitals with emergency departments, non-contrast CT scanners, and 24/7 laboratories were identified as Potential Acute Stroke Centers (PASCs). Hospital geolocation data were collected and mapped using the OpenStreetMap® dataset. A 45-minute drive radius was considered the ideal coverage area for each hospital based on the drive speeds from the OpenRouteService® database. Population data, including demographic density, was obtained from the Kontur Population® datasets. The proposed CS assessed the population covered by ASCs and proposed new ASCs or artificial points (APs) settled in densely populated areas to achieve a target population coverage (TPC) of 95%.


The observed coverage in the region presented significant disparities, ranging from 0% in the Bahamas to 73.92% in Trinidad and Tobago. No country/region reached the 95% TPC using only its current ASCs or PASCs, leading to the proposal of APs. For example, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, the introduction of 132 new centers was suggested. Furthermore, It was observed that most ASCs were in major urban hubs or university hospitals, leaving rural areas largely underserved.


The MAPSTROKE project has the potential to provide a systematic approach to identify areas with limited access to stroke centers and propose solutions for increasing access to AIS treatment.

Data Access Statement:

Data used for this publication are available from the authors upon reasonable request.

Get full access to this article

UCSF Neurologist to Receive Prestigious Scientific Award

Three pages in Google Scholar and I see 'management' and prognostication but NOTHING ON ACTUALLY GETTING SURVIVORS RECOVERED! In my opinion this is an invalid award at least as far as stroke is concerned. I expect stroke researchers to tell us EXACTLY how their research gets survivors recovered. If it doesn't do that, they need to find a new research field.

UCSF Neurologist to Receive Prestigious Scientific Award


American Brain Foundation to Honor Physician-Researcher Bruce Ovbiagele, MD, for Research in Health Equity and Stroke Prevention

Newswise — Bruce Ovbiagele, MD, MSC, MAS, MBA, MLS, FAAN, UC San Francisco Professor of Neurology and Associate Dean of the San Francisco VA Healthcare System, has been chosen by the American Brain Foundation (ABF) to receive its annual Scientific Breakthrough Award. Ovbiagele is being honored for his transformative work in health equity and inclusion, improving stroke outcomes for underserved and vulnerable populations.  

The Scientific Breakthrough Award is given to an individual or group whose research has led to meaningful advances for the care of patients living with neurological disease. In bestowing the award, the foundation noted that, “Dr. Ovbiagele’s impact on the field has been tremendous; his research and his role as a mentor have made the field and the atmosphere for discovery immensely better. He has also helped to train, mentor, and inspire individuals from underrepresented groups in medicine to conduct high-quality neurological research.” 

Ovbiagele will receive the award at the American Brain Foundation’s annual Commitment to Cures gala on April 13 in Denver, celebrating researchers and advocates working toward life without brain disease. The event is held in conjunction with the American Academy of Neurology’s (AAN) 2024 annual meeting. 

“I thank the American Brain Foundation for this wonderful honor, which I accept with gratitude and on behalf of the many other colleagues across national borders with whom I have collaborated,” said Ovbiagele.  

Dr. Ovbiagele’s research focuses on stroke outcomes in disparate populations and is chronicled in more than 630 peer-reviewed articles with over 130,000 citations.  Using innovative trial designs, genomic technologies, and community engaged methodologies, he has implemented evidence-based stroke prevention programs to reduce death and disability for high-risk populations in low-resource settings. Another focus of Dr. Ovbiagele’s professional efforts is enhancing the careers of individuals under-represented in the global biomedical research workforce. His initiatives have launched the careers of scores of individuals who are under-represented in medicine and science in the United States and beyond, into academic prominence and their own independently funded research careers.  

In addition to the Scientific Breakthrough Award, Ovbiagele has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the W. Lester Henry Award from the American College of Physicians; the Michael Pessin Stroke Leadership Award, the Health Equity Research Award and Robert Wartenberg Lecture Award from the AAN; Audrey Penn Award from the American Neurological Association; Mridha Humanitarian Award from ABF; William Feinberg Award and Stroke Council Award from the American Stroke Association; Ron Haddock International Impact Award and Distinguished Scientist Award from the American Heart Association; Meritorious Achievement Award from the National Medical Association; and Services to Stroke Award from the World Stroke Organization. 

He currently serves on the Board of Directors of AAN (2023-2025) and has been a member of the AAN since 1998. He has served on several AAN committees and subcommittees including the Clinical Research Training Fellowship Award Committee, Clinical Research Subcommittee, Minority Scholars Subcommittee, and Education Committee. He was a “Neurology on the Hill” participant in 2008, Palatucci Advocacy Leadership Forum graduate in 2009, and Minority Scholars Visiting Professor to Morehouse School of Medicine in 2011. He has served as director of stroke courses at both the Annual Meeting and Fall Conference, faculty chair/guest editor for a Continuum® issue, and abstracts reviewer for the AAN Annual Meeting. He presently directs the Health Equity for Neurologists course at the Annual Meeting. Ovbiagele is a member of the AAN’s Media Expert Panel.  

Dr. Ovbiagele chaired the International Stroke Conference (2016–2018), served as an associate editor of Stroke (2020–2022), and is the current editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Heart Association. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine and Association of American Physicians; as well as an elected fellow of the World Academy of Sciences, International Science Council, World Stroke Organization, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Royal College of Physicians (London), and Royal Society of Public Health. He also serves on the ABF’s Research Advisory Committee. 

He received a degree in Medicine from the University of Lagos. He received fellowship training in Vascular Neurology at UCLA, his residency in General Neurology at UC Irvine and he interned in Internal Medicine and Psychiatry at Charles Drew University in Los Angeles. He also has a law degree from Washington University in St. Louis, a Master of Science from UCLA, a Master of Advanced Studies from UC San Diego and a MBA from University of Massachusetts, Amherst.   

About ABF:

The American Brain Foundation was founded to bring researchers and donors together to cure brain diseases and disorders. For more than 30 years, the organization has funded research across a broad spectrum of brain and nervous system diseases and disorders in the pursuit of improved treatments, prevention, and cures.  

About UCSF Health:

UCSF Health is recognized worldwide for its innovative patient care, reflecting the latest medical knowledge, advanced technologies and pioneering research. It includes the flagship UCSF Medical Center, which is a top-ranked hospital, as well as UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospitals, with campuses in San Francisco and Oakland; Langley Porter Psychiatric Hospital and Clinics; UCSF Benioff Children’s Physicians; and the UCSF Faculty Practice. These hospitals serve as the academic medical center of the University of California, San Francisco, which is world-renowned for its graduate-level health sciences education and biomedical research. UCSF Health has affiliations with hospitals and health organizations throughout the Bay Area. Visit Follow UCSF Health on Facebook or on Twitter.

Exercise as an Aging Mimetic: A New Perspective on the Mechanisms Behind Exercise as Preventive Medicine Against Age-Related Chronic Disease

FYI. Ask your doctor what this means. 

 Would this work?

Exercise as an Aging Mimetic: A New Perspective on the Mechanisms Behind Exercise as Preventive Medicine Against Age-Related Chronic Disease


Age-related chronic diseases are among the most common causes of mortality and account for a majority of global disease burden. Preventative lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, play a critical role in attenuating chronic disease burden. However, the exact mechanism behind exercise as a form of preventative medicine remains poorly defined. Interestingly, many of the physiological responses to exercise are comparable to aging. This paper explores an overarching hypothesis that exercise protects against aging/age-related chronic disease because the physiological stress of exercise mimics aging. Acute exercise transiently disrupts cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and brain function and triggers a substantial inflammatory response in a manner that mimics aging/age-related chronic disease. Data indicate that select acute exercise responses may be similar in magnitude to changes seen with +10–50 years of aging. The initial insult of the age-mimicking effects of exercise induces beneficial adaptations that serve to attenuate disruption to successive “aging” stimuli (i.e., exercise). Ultimately, these exercise-induced adaptations reduce the subsequent physiological stress incurred from aging and protect against age-related chronic disease. To further examine this hypothesis, future work should more intricately describe the physiological signature of different types/intensities of acute exercise in order to better predict the subsequent adaptation and chronic disease prevention with exercise training in healthy and at-risk populations.

Coffee Component Boosts Memory

If you have competent doctors and hospital they will contact stroke leadership to get human testing going.  

Do you prefer your  doctor and hospital incompetence NOT KNOWING? OR NOT DOING?

Coffee Component Boosts Memory

Summary: Trigonelline (TG), a compound in coffee and certain vegetables, is believed to improve cognitive decline in aging. Researchers administered TG to aging mice, noting enhancements in spatial learning and memory.

Deep dives into the hippocampus found that TG bolstered neurotransmitters and curtailed inflammation. This natural compound holds potential in mitigating age-linked cognitive challenges.

Key Facts:

  1. Trigonelline (TG), found in coffee, fenugreek seed, and radish, significantly enhanced spatial learning and memory in aged mice.
  2. TG was discovered to support pathways tied to nervous system development, mitochondrial function, and neurotransmitter release.
  3. The compound also suppressed neuroinflammation and increased key neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus.

Source: University of Tsukuba

The search for functional natural compounds that can improve age-related cognitive decline has recently emerged as an important research focus to promote healthy aging.

Trigonelline (TG), a plant alkaloid found in coffee, as well as in fenugreek seed and radish, was anticipated to possess cognitive enhancement properties.

This shows a cup of coffee.
These findings suggest the efficacy of TG in preventing and improving age-related spatial learning memory impairment. Credit: Neuroscience News

In this study, researchers led by the University of Tsukuba investigated the effects of TG on memory and spatial learning (acquiring, retaining, structuring, and applying information related to the surrounding physical environment) from both a cognitive and molecular biology perspective in an integrated manner using a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model.

Following oral administration of TG to SAMP8 mice for 30 days, the Morris water maze test indicated a significant improvement in spatial learning and memory performance compared with SAMP8 mice that did not receive TG.

Next, the researchers performed whole-genome transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. They found that signaling pathways related to nervous system development, mitochondrial function, ATP synthesis, inflammation, autophagy, and neurotransmitter release were significantly modulated in the TG group.

Furthermore, the research team found that TG suppressed neuroinflammation by negatively regulating signaling factor Traf6-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Additionally, quantitative protein analysis confirmed that the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased and the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were significantly increased in the hippocampus.

These findings suggest the efficacy of TG in preventing and improving age-related spatial learning memory impairment.

Funding: This work was supported by DyDo DRINCO and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST grant number JPMJPF2017).

About this memory research news

Author: YAMASHINA Naoko
Source: University of Tsukuba
Contact: YAMASHINA Naoko – University of Tsukuba
Image: The image is credited to Neuroscience News

Original Research: Open access.
Transcriptomics and Biochemical Evidence of Trigonelline Ameliorating Learning and Memory Decline in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) Model by Suppressing Proinflammatory Cytokines and Elevating Neurotransmitter Release” by KAGAWA, Tamami et al. GeroScience


Transcriptomics and Biochemical Evidence of Trigonelline Ameliorating Learning and Memory Decline in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) Model by Suppressing Proinflammatory Cytokines and Elevating Neurotransmitter Release

In recent years, exploring natural compounds with functional properties to ameliorate aging-associated cognitive decline has become a research priority to ensure healthy aging. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Trigonelline (TG), a plant alkaloid, on memory and spatial learning in 16-week-old senescence-accelerated mouse model SAMP8 using an integrated approach for cognitive and molecular biology aspects.

After 30 days of oral administration of TG at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day, the mice were trained in Morris Water Maze task. TG-treated SAMP8 mice exhibited significant improvement in the parameters of escape latency, distance moved, and annulus crossing index. Next, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome profiling of the mouse hippocampus using microarrays.

Gene ontology analyses showed that a wide range of biological processes, including nervous system development, mitochondrial function, ATP synthesis, and several signaling pathways related to inflammation, autophagy, and neurotransmitter release, were significantly enriched in TG-treated SAMP8 compared to nontreated. Further, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique, Uniform Manifold

Approximation and Projection (UMAP), was applied to identify clusters of functions that revealed TG primarily regulated pathways related to inflammation, followed by those involved in neurotransmitter release. In addition, a protein–protein interaction network analysis indicated that TG may exert its biological effects through negatively modulating Traf6-mediated NF-κB activation.

Finally, ELISA test showed that TG treatment significantly decreased proinflammatory cytokines- TNFα and IL6 and increased neurotransmitters- dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin in mouse hippocampus. Altogether, our integrated bio-cognitive approach highlights the potential of TG in alleviating age-related memory and spatial impairment.

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  1. Yes. Specific Information on required amounts and types of coffee to obtain the benefits would be helpful.

  2. 5 mg per mouse a day was mentioned. Blood volume of a mouse vs blood volume of a human multiplied by 5 mg seems quite high. Much more than just a cup of coffee.

  3. Same questions as Tim….in other words what does an individual have to do to reap the benefits of this finding !

  4. There are some exercise suits that claim to improve movement in people suffering various neurological problems (the mollisuit). Has any research been done to prove the effectiveness of this treatment in order to encourage it to become a part of normal physiotherapy treatments in suitable patient groups? I could find some research volunteers ifv any such research could be funded.

  5. Enjoyed the article.This would be more helpful if the amount of coffee a day was suggested. Caffeine or non caffeine. Brewered with filter or on filter. Thank you.

Comments are closed.